Archeological Discoveries that Prove the Bible is Reliable
People mentioned in the Bible that are also proved by Archeological Discovery
|Balaam||ca. 1400 B.C.||Num. 22:5 - The son of Beor; called by Balak, King of Moab, to curse Israel||An inscription found in 1967 at a temple at Deir Alla (Biblical Succoth) contains an Aramic inscription that contains messages of doom and curses from Balaam, son of Beor. He is also called a "seer of the gods." Inscription dated to 700 B.C.|
|Israel (Nation)||1220 B.C.||Exodus 5:1 - The Old Testament name for the Jewish Nation||The "Israel stele" of Merneptah is the earliest mention by the nation of Israel in a secular source.|
|David||1011-971 B.C.||1 Sam 16:13; 2 Sam 5:3-4 - Second King of United Israel; Killed Goliath||Stone inscription found at Tel Dan by Avraham Biran in 1993 which speaks of "the King of Israel" which was of "the house of David."|
|Hezion||ca. 900 B.C.||1 Kings 15:18 - Father of Tabrimmon, father of Barhadad||Stele dedicated to god Baal Melqart found at Aleppo bears an Aramaic inscription that mentions Barhadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion|
|Ben Hadad I||r. ca. 900-860 B.C.||1 Kings 15:18 - Son of Tabrimmon, Son of Hezion, King of Syria (Aram)||1. Stone monument of treaty with King Pygmalion of Tyre.|
|2. Stele dedicated to god, Baal Melqart found at Aleppo bears an Aramaic inscription that mentions Barhadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, King of Aram.|
|Omri||ca. 885-874 B.C.||1 Kings 16:16 - 6th King of Israel||1. Mesha stele (Moabite stone) tells that Omri, King of Israel subjugated Moab.|
|2. Assyrian records refer to Israel as Omri-land or the house of Omri.|
|3. Black obelisk refers to Jehu, son of Omri.|
|Jezebel||r. ca. 874-853 B.C.||1 Kings 16:31 - Wife of Ahab; wicked Baal worshiping queen||Fine seal in the Israel Museum has the name Jezebel.|
|Ben Hadad II (May be same person as Ben Hadad I)||ca. 860-843 B.C.||1 Kings 20:1 - King of Syrian (Aram)||Called Hadadezer in Assyrian records from 853 B.C. that records the battle of Qarqar with Shalmaneser III.|
|Mesha||ca. 853 B.C.||2 Kings 3:4 - King of Moab||On Moabite stone, Mesha complains about having been oppressed by Omri, King of Israel and boasts of driving Israel out.|
|Hazael||842-805 B.C.||1 Kings 19:15 - King of Aram (Syria); succeeded (murdered) Ben-Hadad II||1. Ivory inlay fragment found at Arslan Tash bears the name Hazael|
|2. Cuneiform inscriptions of Shalmaneser III military campaigns|
|3. Inscription on statue mentions Barhadad, son of Hazael|
|Jehu||ca. 841-814 B.C.||1 Kings 19:16 - 11th King of Israel||1. Black obelisk of Shalmaneser III in British Museum depicts Jehu bowing and tells of the "tribute of Jehu, son of Omri."|
|2. Cuneiform tablet of Shalmaneser III, also records receiving tribute from "Jehu."|
|Jehoash (Joash)||ca. 801-786 B.C.||2 Kings 13:10 - 13th King of Israel; son of Jehoahuz||On a stele found at Tell al-Riman in 1967, Assyrian King Adad-Nirari III relates how he received tribute from AJehoash the Samarian|
|Ben Hadad III||ca. 798-722 B.C.||2 Kings 13:24-25 - King of Syria (Aram); Son of Hazael||Zakir King of Hamuth relates that Barhadad, the son of Hazael, fought against him.|
|Jeroboam II||ca. 793-753 B.C.||2 Kings 13:13 - 14th King of Israel; son of Jehoash||Seal of Jasper found at Megiddo has a roaring lion and the inscription ABelonging to Shema, servant of Jeroboam.|
|Uzziah||790-739 B.C.||2 Kings 15:13 - also called Azariah; 10th King of Judah; leper when he died.||Aramaic inscription on a stone plaque - 13" x 14" - reads "Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah, King of Judah." Plaque found in tomb on Mt. of Olives but bones were not found.|
|Menahem||ca. 752-742 B.C.||2 Kings 15:17 - 17th King of Israel||Tiglath-Pileser relates in a cuneiform text found at Calah that he received tribute from AMenahem of Samaria.|
|Jotham||ca. 750-731 B.C.||2 Kings 15:32 - 11th King of Judah||
1. Seal, signet ring found at Ezion
Geber (Elath) inscription - ABelonging to Jotham also ram in seal - in
2. Bulla in collection of Shlomo Moussaieff which reads AAhaz (son of) Jotham, King of Judah
|Pul (Tiglath-Pileser III)||ca. 745-727 B.C.||2 Kings 15:19 - Assyrian King; called Pul in Bible; his records mention several Jewish kings.||
1. Palace found at Ninevah.
2. Another palace found with reliefs of Tiglath-Pileser
3. Numerous cuneiform tablets including 2 King lists and the annals of Tiglath-Pileser.
|Pekah||ca. 740-732 B.C.||2 Kings 15:27 - 19th King of Israel||
1. Tiglath-Pileser III records in
an annalistic text that he overturned Pekah.
2. Pottery jar at Hazor from the time of Pekah is inscribed with name APekah.
|Ahaz||735-715 B.C.||2 Kings 16:2 - 12th King of Judah; son of Jotham; idolatrous; listed in Jesus' genealogy (Mt 1:9)||
1. Cuneiform inscription of Tiglath
Pileser's campaign against Palestine (called Jehoahaz);
2. Seal with inscription Abelonging to Usna, "Minister of Ahaz"
3. Bulla with impression "Ahaz (son of) Jotham King of Judah"
|Hoshea||ca. 732-722 B.C.||2 Kings 17:1 - 20th (and last) King of Israel||
1. Seal purchased at Sotheby=s
reads "Belonging to Abdi, servant of Hoshea"
2. Tiglath-Pilser III records helping Hoshea come to throne
|Rezin||d. 732 B.C.||2 Kings 15:37 - King of Aram (Syria); killed by Tiglath-Pileser III||
1. Cuneiform tablet of
Tiglath-Pileser III lists tribute received from Rezin
2. Tablet tells of fall of Damascus and names Rezin.
|Shalmaneser V||727-722 B.C.||2 Kings 17:3 - King of Assyria; son of Tiglath-Pileser||
1. Babylonian Chronicle cites his
2. Name found on boundary stone to date an event to his third year.
3. Bronze weight has inscription which contains his name.
4. Babylonian King list records him.
|Sargon II||722-705 B.C.||Isa. 20:1 - King of Assyria; brother of Shalmaneser V||
1. Palace found at Khorsabad with
multiple carvings of Sargon in relief.
2. Extensive cuneiform texts tell about his exploits and reign (which include the annals & Sargon=s prism).
3. Fragment of stele found at Ashdod and erected after Sargon=s victory.
|Merodach-Baladar||ca. 721-709 B.C.||2 Kings 20:12 - King of Babylon||
1. Stele for a land grant depicts
Merodach-Baladar and has text about him.
2. Babylonian chronicle
3. King List A
4. Numerous cuneiform inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, and Sennacherib.
5. Cuneiform cylinder written by Merodach-Baladar boasting of driving out Assyrians.
|Hezekiah||r. ca. 715-686 B.C.||Kings 18:2 - 13th King of Judah; dug tunnel for water from Gihon Spring||
1. Clay bulla in Israel Museum
bears inscription, "Jehozara,...servant of Hezekiah."
2. Sennacherib records shutting Hezekiah up like a bird in Jerusalem and twice more mentions him elsewhere.
|Shebna||ca. 700 B.C.||2 Kings 18:18 - Court official of Hezekiah||Partial tomb inscription found in Silvan has been reconstructed by Avigad to contain part of Shebna=s name.|
|Manasseh||ca. 697-642 B.C.||2 Kings 20:21 - 14th King of Judah||
1. Seal reading ABelonging to
Manassah, the son of the King may be from time when he was crown prince.
2. Esarhaddon lists AManassah, King of Judah on Prism B which lists those who contributed material to his new palace.
3. Ashurbanipal, on Cylinder C, lists AManassah, King of Judah as being forced to accompany him on his Egyptian campaign.
|Sharezer||ca. 681 B.C.||2 Kings 19:37 - Son of Sennacherib; helped kill his father.||Cuneiform tablet refers to Nabusharuzur as an officer in right time period.|
|Esarhaddon||r. 681-669 B.C.||2 Kings 19:37 - King of Assyria; Son of Sennacherib; Settled foreigners in Samaria||
1. Stele depicting victory over
Egypt & Tyre
2. Commemorative stone tablet recounting the rebuilding of Babylon
3. Cuneiform clay prism contains annuals of Esarhadden
4. Bronze plague in Louvre depicting Esarhadden and mother Nagia
5. Many other cuneiform tablets
|Ashurbanipal||668-626 B.C.||Ezra 4:10 (NIV) KJV calls his Osapper - Last Assyrian King||
1. Library of cuneiform tablets
found at Kuyunjik
2. Ruins of buildings with extensive sculptures at Ninevah
3. Annals of Ashurbanipal - clay prism
|Hilkiah||ca. 639 B.C.||2 Kings 22:8 - high priest during Josiahs reign who found scroll of Torah.||Ring with seal reads "belonging to Hanan, son of Hilkiah, the priest."|
|ca. 610-595 B.C.||2 Kings 23:29 - Pharaoh of Egypt; 26th dynasty; fought and killed Josiah||
1. Sculpture in University Museum
3. Bowl found at Persepolis bears name and titles.
4. Stele at Sidon with name in hieroglyphics.
|Jehoahaz||ca. 609 B.C.||2 Kings 23:31 - 17th King of Judah; son of Josiah||Seal reading "Belonging to Jehoahaz, the son of the King."|
|Baruch||ca. 605 B.C.||Jer. 32:12 - Scribe of Jeremiah the prophet; son of Neriah||
1. Bulla bought in Jerusalem
antiquities market in 1975
2. Bulla in the collection of Shlomo Moussaieff. This bulla actually shows a fingerprint on the back.
|Jerahmeel||ca. 605 B.C.||Jeremiah 36:26 - "Son" of the King Jehoiahim (possibly an official) sent to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch||Seal with inscription "Belonging to Jerahmeel, the son of the King."|
|Jaazaniah||ca. 605 B.C.||2 Kings 25:23 - Army officer under Gedaliah||Seal found at Mizpah in 1932 bears inscription "Belonging to Jaazaniah, servant of the King."|
|Nebuchadnezzar||605-562 B.C.||2 Kings 24:1; Daniel 1:1 - Babylonian King; conquered Judah; God gave prophecies||
1. Many cuneiform inscriptions -
Babylonian Chronicle; building dedications.
2. Clay bricks of Babylon contain his name
3. Boundary stone from Sippar records land grant by Nebuchadnezzar
4. Business texts dated by Nebuchadnezzar=s reign.
|Eliakim||ca. 598 B.C.||2 Kings 18:18 - Steward (palace administration) of King Jehoiachin; son of Hilkiah||Seal impression on jar handles found at Tell Beit Mirsim reading ABelonging to Eliakim, steward of Yaukin (Jehoiachin).|
|Elishama||ca. 598 B.C.||Jer. 36:12 - Scribe||Seal impression on bulla from Jerusalem hoard that reads "Elishama, servant of the King."|
|Jehoiachin||ca. 597 B.C.||2 Kings 24:6 - also called Coniah; 19th ruler of Judah||
1. 4 pottery handles stamped with a
seal that reads "Belonging to Eliakim, steward of Jehoiachin."
2. Cuneiform tablets found in Babylon record rations given to "Jehoiachin, King of Judah."
|Gemariah||ca. 593 B.C.||Jer. 29:3 - Emissary from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar; Son of Hilkiah||Lachish Ostracon I mentions a "Gemariah son of Hissilyahn."|
|Hophra||r. 588-564 B.C.||Jer. 44:30 - Pharaoh of Egypt; 4th King of 26th Dynasty; also called Wahibpre or Apries||
1. Stele records defeat of Apries
by Amasis (in Cairo Museum)
2. Palace found at Memphis
3. Vase has a painting of Apries head and name in hieroglyphics
4. Stele depicts him making offering to gods.
|Baalis||ca. 586 B.C.||Jer. 40:14 - King of the Ammonites||A seal impression found in 1984 at Tel el-Umeiri by the Andrews University excavation team.|
|Gedaliah||ca. 586 B.C.||2 Kings 25:22 - Governor of Judah appointed by Nebuchadnezzar; murdered by Jewish royal relatives||Seal impression (bulla) found at Lachish reads "Belonging to Gedaliah, who is over the house" (Administrator of palace)|
|Evil - Merodach||r. 562-560 B.C.||2 Kings 25:27-30 - King of Babylon; son of Nebuchadnezzar; also called Amel-Marduk||
1. Cuneiform tablet about the
family of Nabonidus
2. Cuneiform tablet listing kings
|Nergalsharezer||Ca. 559-556 B.C.||Jer. 39:3 - Called a prince in Babylon; son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar; ruled Babylon after Evil-Merodach.||
1. Cuneiform tablets of contracts.
2. Tablets tell that he rebuilt temples.
3. Cuneiform text tells of military campaign into Cilicia.
|Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great||Ruled. ca. 550-529 B.C.||2 Chr. 36:22 - Persian King who founded empire; defeated Babylonians; allowed Jew to go home from captivity.||
1. Inscription from Pasargadae
saying, "I am Cyrus..."
2. Nabonidus Chronicle - cuneiform inscription
3. Cyrus cylinder
4. Historical records by Herodotus and Aeschylus
5. Tomb at Pasargadue in SW Iran
|Belshazzar||ca. 536 B.C.||Daniel 5 - King of Babylon||Cuneiform tablet - Yale Babylonian collection|
|Darius I Hystaspes or Darius the Great||r. 522-486 B.C.||Ezra 4:5 - King of Persia||
1. Behistun Rock inscription
celebrating his victories over contenders to the throne
2. Copy of Behistun inscription found on papyrus at Elephantine
3. Palace & Audience Hall at Persepolis with numerous reliefs and inscriptions portraying Darius
4. Numerous cuneiform tablets
5. Other papyri found at Elephantine
|Mordecai||ca. 486 B.C.||Est. 2:5 - Gate official in reign of Ahasuerus at Sousa||Undated tablet found at Borsippa speaks of a Mordecai who served in Sousa during Xerxes reign.|
|Esther 1:1 - Ahasuerus is Greek for Xerxes; King in Esther story.||
1. Audience Hall at Persepolis has
relief of Xerxes with father, Darius
2. Palace at Persepolis portrays Xerxes on door.
3. Clay tablet archives chronicle his life.
4. Seals found in Egypt are inscribed "Xerxes, the great king."
5. Elephantine papyri dated by his reign.
6. Herodotus histories
|Artaxerxes I, Longimanus||
ca. 465-423 B.C.
|Ezra 4:7 - King of Persia; allowed Jews to return to Israel||
1. Tomb of Artaxerxes known near
2. Elephantine papyri use dates based on his reign.
|Greshem the Arab||ca. 450 B.C.||Nehemiah 2:19 - Opposed Nehemiah and building of Jerusalem Temple||
1. Silver vessel from shrine at
Tell el - Maskhuta with Aramaic inscription stating that it was presented
by Cain, son of Geshem, King of Qedar.
2. Lihyanite inscription names Geshem along with the Persian governor of Dedan.
|Sanballat||ca. 450 B.C.||Neh. 2:10 - governor of Samaria who opposed Nehemiah=s rebuilding projects||
1. Aramaic papyrus from Elephantine
refers to Athe sons of Sanballat, governor of Samaria.
2. Scrolls found in Waid Daliyeh refer twice to a Ason of Sanballat ... once in a sealing and once in an Aramaic test.
|Darius the Persian||ca. 424-404 B.C.||Neh. 12:22 - King of Persia, Successor of Artaxerxes I||"The passover Papyrus" found at Elephantine|
|Jehohanan||ca. 407 B.C.||Ezra 10:6 - Son of Eliashib, the high priest||1. Elephantine papyrus to Biguai, governor of Judah, mentions Johanan, the high priest of Jerusalem.|
|Aretas IV||9 B.C. - A.D. 40||2 Cor. 11:32-33 - King at Damascus who arrested Paul||
2. 20 inscriptions use his name & reign for dating.
3. Inscription at Khirbet et Tannur dates setting up of alter to his 2nd year.
4. Inscription at Madeba calls him "he who loves his people."
5. Coins with his likeness
|Archelaus||4 B.C. - A.D. 6||Mat 2:22 - Also called Herod Archelaus; son of Herod the great; ruler of Judea & Samaria during Jesus' childhood||
1. Contemporary Histories - Dio
3. Coins that have inscription "Ethrarch" or "Herod" or "Ethrarch Herod"
|Antipas||C 4 B.C. - A.D. 39||Luke 3:1 - Called Herod the Tetrarch in Bible||
2. Coins carry inscription
"Herod the Tetrarch"
|Augustus||ca. 27 B.C. - A.D. 14||Luke 2:2 - Roman emperor during birth of Jesus; full name Gaius Octavius||
1. Full biography found in long
Greek & Latin inscription in Ankara, Turkey
2. Inscription celebrating his birthday
5. Contemporary histories
|Annas||ca. A.D. 26||Luke 3:2 - Jewish High Priest||Josephus|
|Caiaphas||A.D. 33||Mt. 26:3 - High priest during time of Jesus||
1. Josephus tells us his name was
2. Ossuary found in Jerusalem in 1990 has Hebrew inscription that reads "Joseph, son of Caiaphas."
|AD 41-44||Acts 12:1 - called Herod the King; grandson of Herod the Great; King of Judea; Persecuted Christians in Jerusalem||
2. Contemporary Roman records
3. Coins with inscription "The Great King Agrippa, Friend of the Caesar"
4. Basalt fragment of a Nabatean inscription refers to "Agrippa, the King" (Could be either I or II)
|Bernice||ca. A.D. 50||Acts 25:13 - Oldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I; accompanied brother (lover) Agrippa II when Paul appeared before him.||
1. Roman records including
Suetonius and Dio Cassius
3. Monumental stone inscription found in Beirut mentions King Agrippa and Bernice.
|Claudius||A.D. 51-54||Acts 11:28; 18:2 - Roman Emperor; ordered Jews to leave Rome||
1. Roman historical records by
Suetonias, Orosius, Tacitus and Dio Cassius
2. Coins with his name
|Agrippa II||A.D. 56-95||Acts 25:13-26:32 - Son of Agrippa I; ruler of Northern areas of Palestine; Paul appeared before him before going to Rome; Married to Bernice||
2. Contemporary Roman records
3. Coins with likeness & inscription "King Agrippa"
4. Basalt fragment (see Agrippa I above)
5. Monumental stone inscription found in Beirut mention's Herod Agrippa and Bernice.
|Ananias||C A.D. 58||Acts 23:2 - Jewish High Priest who opposed Paul||Josephus|